What is Nondestructive testing (NDT) ?
The name suggests that this is something that needs to be tested and does not damage the test object. Basically, we have all already encountered such testing at the doctors. X-ray examination, by means of which the radiation penetrates the whole body helps the doctors identify health problems, so-called defects that must be removed. Thus, non-destructive testing is similar to that, but used in the technical field is to find surface or internal material defects (discontinuities) that could adversely affect product performance.
What is Defectoscopy (NDT)
We also use the name of defectoscopy – depiction of defects. Non-destructive testing or defectoscopy is the same. Defectoscopy or non-destructive testing (NDT) involves a set of methods which, based on measurable or at least traceable physical phenomena, are capable of detecting defects in a product without disturbing or damaging it. The product is not damaged during the defectoscopic inspection and, if it meets the quality requirements, it can be used immediately, which means that the defectoscopic test was non-destructive. The purpose of such testing is to prove that the product is free from defects. If it proves to be faulty, the product cannot be used and must be repaired or taken out of service.
Type of testing
Six basic NDT procedures are used, which are based on different physical principles-phenomena (shown in brackets after the method):
- Visual method ( visible light)
- Penetration capillary testing (capillary phenomenon)
- Magnetiv particle test ( magnetic field)
- Eddy current testing (electric current),
- Industrial radiography (electromagnetic waves),
- Ultrasonic testing (elastic waves)
The individual procedures are different in terms of technical equipment and personnel qualification, so it is not possible to establish one generally valid procedure for finding a defect. The use of specific testing always depends on the situation.
- NDT allows early detection of external or internal defects in the product that could prevent its effective use or cause structural failure during its operation,
- the product remains unchanged for further use after testing,
- NDT can be used at any stage of the production process,
- reduces production costs,
- maintains the same product quality.
Non-destructive testing should be a very important part of the various stages of production, as it plays a decisive role in the quality of the final production and thus in the success of the manufacturer, and last but not least, reduces production costs and guarantees operational reliability.